Thursday, December 26, 2019

The Wealth Of Nations By Adam Smith Essay - 1772 Words

In the Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith talks about international trade and subsequent government policies which became increasingly significant throughout modern history. Protectionism is the term for economic policies of restraining trade between countries when they want to protect their domestic industries from foreign competition. Trades nowadays have different forms and methods and involve more businessmen as well as consumers, which is why trade diplomats are looking to regional agreements. The US experienced two major economic declines during the 20th century, both of which had much to do with international trade. Smith mentioned tariffs in the 18th century, but the role and forms of protectionism have changed across time, so we should know whether the development of economy should actually be correlated with or decided by the political sector of the society and when protectionism will benefit or hurt economy. Main protectionist policies include tariffs, quotas, embargos and voluntary export restraints, and Adam Smith’s idea of absolute advantage has been developed further to explain international trade. In recent years, protectionism has become closely related to globalization during which the influences of trades spread almost everywhere, so people insist upon the study of social deformities generated by improper policies on international trade and the task of pointing them out with a view to remedy. There are certainly both economic and political purposes of tradeShow MoreRelatedThe Wealth Of Nations By Adam Smith1659 Words   |  7 PagesAdam Smith, the author of â€Å"The Wealth of Nations†, was a Scottish moral philosopher during the Industrial Revolution who was inspired by his surroundings to write about the field of economics. Being a man of intellect on various types of philosophical views, Smith was able to portray his passionate feelings about political thought t hrough his well-written works. While publishing his book, Smith became known as the â€Å"father of modern economics†. He was given this honorary title due to his strong determinationRead MoreWealth Of Nations By Adam Smith1574 Words   |  7 PagesIn his book, Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith makes arguments to support free-trade. These arguments range from having to do with war, all the way to the structure of social classes. In order to assess the morality of these arguments, David Hume’s definition of morality and Kant’s definition of morality can be used. These definitions, ultimately, serve as context for Smith’s arguments, so that there is a clearer idea of whether they are moral or not. From this, modern readers of Smith’s book can betterRead MoreThe Wealth Of Nations By Adam Smith1774 Words   |  8 PagesAdam Smith’s masterpiece writing, The Wealth of Nations, attempts to create a different understanding of the economy from his age. The focus mainly remains on mercantilism the most prevalent economic system for Western Society at this time. Smith’s simple and in-depth explanations of even the most basic economic concepts allow for someone with little to no prior knowledge of economics to easily grasp his meaning, and coupling these explanations with real life examples provides even more teachingRead MoreThe Wealth Of Nations By Adam Smith1384 Words   |  6 PagesSome books, such as the Bible, have influenced Christians. Common Sense by Thomas Paine encouraged Americans to join the fight against the British. Other books, however, do more than simply encourage; they introduce a new philosophy. The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith is claimed to aid the philosophy of what would one day become modern economics. One author wrote two books that would change the course of history. These books would lay foundations to communism and influence leaders like Lenin and Tse-TungRead MoreThe Wealth Of Nations By Adam Smith1521 Words   |  7 PagesIn Adam Smith’s famous work, The Wealth of Nations, he references the idea of the â€Å"invisible hand† and its influence on the individual. An excerpt from Smith’s renown book reads, â€Å"[E]very individual necessarily labours to render the annual revenue of society as great as he can. He generally, indeed, neither intends to promote the public interest, nor knows how much he is promoting it . . . he intends only his own gain, and he is in this, as in many other cases, led by an invisible hand to promoteRead MoreWealth Of Nations By Adam Smith Summary818 Words   |  4 Pagespolitical economist even though he began studying economics after reading â€Å"The Wealth of Nations† by Adam Smith. Ricardo is most known for his theory of rent and his theory of comparative advantage. Some of his ideas are still relevant today including his comparative advantage theory. Finally, Ricardo was the first political economist to focus on distribution rather than production. 3. After beginning this paper with Adam Smith, it seemed fitting to end it will him as well, since he is one of the mostRead MoreAdam Smith s The Wealth Of Nations916 Words   |  4 PagesAdam Smith’s ‘The Wealth of Nations’ in 1776 is usually considered to mark the beginning of classical economics (Smith, 1776). He was the first to articulate that international trade was not a zero-sum game and it was counterproductive to have a single-minded reliance on exports. He proposed the theory that a country should specialize in manufacturing goods that it can make with the fewest resources, therefore giving it an advantage in the production of that good. This allows for global out to beRead MoreAdam Smith s The Wealth Of Nations Essay1194 Words   |  5 PagesAdam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations (Hofstadter, v. 2 pp. 43-46) and Tom Paine’s Common Sense (Hofstadter, v. 2 pp. 53-62) were both published in 1776. However, that is not there only similarities. They both talk about the mother country’s ability to rule its colonies. They also talk about what they believe should and could lead to the political separation of the mother country and its colonies. Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations looked to the fact that it is impractical to control the benefits ofRead MoreAdam Smith s Wealth Of Nations1057 Words   |  5 PagesThuy Hua PHIL 225 First Exegetical/Critical Paper Professor Michael Schleeter October 5, 2015 Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations For Smith, the value of all commodities that the market is supposed to promote is not come from the money price, but come from the amount of labor required to purchase them because nobody wants to purchase a good that is created with less effort. Therefore, the real value that the market needs to promote is the labor that is invested in the product. For example, in real lifeRead MoreSummary Of The Wealth Of Nations By Adam Smith805 Words   |  4 Pagesthe passage given, Adam Smith examines the different methods that can increase the production of land and labour. He discusses that production can be raised by using the methods of, division of labour and capital accumulation. Smith also provides evidence throughout The Wealth of Nations, proving that his method of labour division is the best way to develop the economy. The key behind Smith’s writing is to prove how division of labour will improve economic progress. Initially, Smith proposes the idea

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

Youth Violence Is the Media to Blame - 1514 Words

Youth Violence: Is the Media to Blame? COM/156 07/27/13 Mallory Dunkley Youth Violence: Is the Media to Blame? Not all children who watch violent programming get in trouble with the law; some feel that there is a strong direct link between the two. There is a good deal of compelling data that suggests that there is a direct link between the media and youth violence. Throughout our history, the media has and can influence people in different ways but the more obvious question is this: There is a number of ways; the media influences the younger generation behaviors. Children are the most susceptible to this, they emulate what they see, and they believe that it is correct to act out what they see on television, movies†¦show more content†¦No truer words have even been spoken, parents may feel that the government may need to step in and take act to prevent such television programming or censor other media’s. But that is not the answer either; children will always find a way to view these violent acts. Parents should not abandon their responsibilities for the education of their ch ildren to the government; they need to step up to the plate and be the primary guidance counselors for their children (Reed, 2006). Furthermore that is the purpose of this paper, it to educate the parents of the dangers of too much bombardment of violent television, movies, and video games. Take your children out and show them the good in life; that life does not evolve around the television or video games. Education is essential, when dealing with issues such as these. Getting your children involved in community events is also a good way to educate them, either planting trees, picking up litter at a local park, or even donating your time for a charitable event. Whatever, you come up with will work against the desensitization that is happening to our children today. The question is who do we blame? Do we blame the producer’s, writer’, programmer’s or the director’s? The answer is no, we cannot blame anyone of those people they are just giving the mass population what they want to be entertained. No, in short we can only blame ourselves; â€Å"the parent’s† it is our job in life to educate ourShow MoreRelatedViolence in Television, Movies, and Video Games Should Not Be Censored1653 Words   |  7 PagesVIOLENCE IN TELEVISION, MOVIES, AND VIDEO GAMES SHOULD NOT BE CENSORED Television, movies, and video games have a great influence on the minds of todays youth. But, what exactly are the effects of such an influence? Certain people have exaggerated the effects that these media have on todays youth. Many people, including government officials, have singled out these three media sources as the cause of some types of violence simply because it is an easy target for laying the blame. The truth isRead MoreVideo Games and Their Role in Violence and Bullying Essay1374 Words   |  6 PagesIn today’s society so many children are becoming bullies and showing aggressive behavior, in which no one knows why. Parents and adults alike both say that the reason their youth and children are showing these attitudes is the violent, mature video games that the children play on their media device. However, many people say that there are other reasons that children show aggressive behavior and why they become bullies to other children. I believe that there are other reasons than video games thatRead More Youth Violence Essay1223 Words   |  5 Pages Youth Violence   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Youth violence is an escalating problem in American society today. There are many different factors that can be blamed for this problem. During the last decade of the twentieth century people began searching for answers to this dilemma which is haunting America. Many tragic school shootings have taken place within the last decade that have gained the attention of the public. As of now, no one can give the right answer to the problem or the reason that it happens because thereRead MoreMedia Violence and Its Effect on Children Essay1112 Words   |  5 Pagessociety that violence in the country is on the rise. It is easy to see why this is a strong argument among the American people, especially because of the rising popularity of violent video games and television programs. However, as these violent video games and television shows are creating their own place in our society, the reports of violence among children are escalating. This correlation has been studied ex tensively in the scientific community in an attempt to discover whether media violence does negativelyRead MoreTelevision Is Destroying Todays Youth, but Dont Blame T.V., Blame the Parents.1302 Words   |  6 Pagesentertainment. As society has changed, violence and sexual content have been added ever so increasingly over the years. After all, isnt that what makes T.V. shows interesting? Isnt that why we all want to go see that new movie that came out which is rated R instead of that movie rated PG? Although this violence and sexual content on television and in movies is having devastating effects on Americas youth, you cannot blame television. Instead, we must blame our parents. So many parents theseRead MoreIncreasing Violence Amongst Youth1420 Words   |  6 PagesYouth violence is an increasing concern in our society. Violence, as defined in Websters online dictionary, is an intense, turbulent or furious and often destructive action or exertion of (physical) force so as to injure or abuse. There is a growing perception that there is a steady rise in violence amongst todays youth, and with this increased attention, comes many sources of blame for their actions, however, all but one are simply excuses. There is a lack of hard evidence to support theRead MoreBlaming the Media for the Worldwide Increase in Violence Essay892 Words   |  4 PagesBlaming the Media for the Worldwide Increase in Violence The mass media are an increasingly accessible way for people to learn what is important in the world today and what is acceptable behaviour in this society. Media outlets include film, radio, print, music and so on; film being the most widely used medium. The media which is prevalent in every aspect of our lives, is the perfect instrument to instil ideas in the minds of the people, and the most susceptible of themRead MoreEssay about Media Violence1541 Words   |  7 PagesViolence has been a contributing negative factor to society throughout history. Many researchers believe that the use of violent media, particularly video games, play a huge role in the downward trend of behavior and attitude of youth, and that this behavior continues to spiral out of control. However, other researchers believe that since violence has been occurring since the beginning of time, that adolescence are as capable today of violence, as they were a thousand years ago. ResearchRead MoreViolence in the Media in Richard Rhodes Hollow Claims about Fantasy Violence1289 Words   |  5 Pagesabout Fantasy Violence† expresses that the media’s portrayal of violence has no influence on those that view it. One of the first tactics that Rhodes used was by attacking the flaws of Organizations who blamed entertainment for the issues of violent behaviors. He claims that due to increased social control over the years has caused a decline in violence. Rhodes’ used thought-provoking tactics attempting to disprove that violence is influenced from the media instead he believes that violence is stemmedRead MoreYoung Blood, Rising Sun : An Epidemic Of Youth Violence1309 Words   |  6 PagesYoung Blood, Rising Sun: An Epidemic of Youth Violence in Japan Since the defeat of Japan in the Second World War, the Japanese national economy has seen tremendous economic growth, led by industrial mavens such as Mitsubishi, Honda, and Sony. This growth can only be contributed to the Japanese workforce: Well-disciplined, group-focused, and willing to sacrifice everything for success, all stereotypical of the Japanese society. However, with newer generations of Japanese growing up with more western-style

Monday, December 9, 2019

Concert Essay free essay sample

This essay examines my aesthetic cultural background and main influences throughout my life. I was born in Istanbul which is the capital city of Turkey; however, my father and mother were born in Kenya. Turkey has played a major role in the history of the world. In regard to the fact that Turkey Is an Islam country, Turkeys importance in the world is really high. The main underlying reason for that is because Turkey is the only country which is not only secular and democratic, but also Salamis as well. Based on the census data collected in 2000, Turkey has a 96. Muslim population. The influence of Islam on the Turkish people is an undeniable fact. The Turkish people have faced with Islam during the war between China and Arabs in 751. In 920, the first Turkish government accepted to be Muslim was the Caravans. With the acceptance of Islam, believes of the Turkish people have changed drastically. The Concerto No. 3 in F major uses identical groups of wind instruments, each comprised of a bassoon, a pair of oboes and horn.The groups go back and forth trading calls and echoing each others phrases. Overall I thought that this was a good piece to listen to. The overture was slow and rich and led into a fast, happy, upbeat movement that involved lots of strings. It was a beautiful piece both for listening and playing. The conductor was very lively and you could tell that he was very passionate about this polyphonic textured piece. I loved how within the movements the instruments were very dramatic, loud and repetitive. Mendelssohn Piano Concerto No. 1 in G minor was the next piece to be played by the orchestra.Overall, It was my favorite piece because the pianist was absolutely amazing, even though the concerto starts off with strings. Felix Mendelssohn was born on February 3, 1809 in Hamburg. His first performance of this piece took place on October 17, 1831 while he played the keyboard and conducted at the same time. This fact I found completely amazing and extremely Intriguing. At an early age Mendelssohn had proven his capability In the field of orchestra by producing his first large scale works including A Midsummer Nights Dream overture during his adolescence.Focusing on the music of this piece however, Piano Concerto No. 1 in G minor reveals many traits of the Romantic era style. There are three movements to this ice however they are bridged to form an uninterrupted duration of music. This piece was very dramatic with fanfares that began and concluded movements. The melodies are cheerful and the vivid G minor tonality gives the third movement a lighter character, that ends with an exhilarating closing passage. While on the topic of Mendelssohn, I am going to discuss his second piece that was played as well.Symphony No. 5 in D major wasnt my favorite piece at all. As a 1 OFF Mendelssohn first performed this Symphony in Berlin on November 15, 1832. This piece bears the title of Reformation in anticipation of the 30th anniversary of the Sagebrush Confession, which was one of the key events in the Protestant revolt led by Martin Luther against the Catholic Church. Which overall this is somewhat amusing because Mendelssohn was brought up in a Jewish home, and wrote his music according to the beliefs of Luther and the Protestants. Symphony No. In D major poppa, Reformation in reference to the early Protestant movement. One can hear this in the first movement. Though the movement gets off to a slow start, dramatic horns come in and loudly interrupt the soft, calm manner of the strings. This piece is deeply impassioned with the struggle f Martin Luther. The triumphant ending concludes the symphony. This piece being the most dramatic of all of the pieces played at Powell Hall. Finally, we come to Franz Joseph Haydn. Haydn was born on March 31, 1732 in Austria. The first performance of his Symphony No. 9 in A major Fire is unknown, but it is certain that Haydn directed the first performance no later than 1769, with the orchestra in residence at the estate of his employer. Heydays symphonies are over one hundred in number and come from the Classical era. It is unknown why this particular symphony got the name Fire for in y opinion it does not sound like what I imagine a fire sounding like. In the opening movement the music is bursting of rhythmic energy, with many loud and soft dynamics and courageous melodic leaps which gives the movement an impression of momentum.The second movement is slow and intriguing. Melodies contrast and follow each other in a different, yet interesting way. The final movements theme is a variation of the main melody, with a dramatic finale. Overall, I will have to say that I really enjoyed going to the SST. Louis Symphony Orchestra. I think that the performance was very nice, even though I wouldnt have hoses to play those pieces (they made me want to fall asleep). The conductor did a ere good Job, was lively and entertaining to watch to say the least.Now, if one was to ask if I would go again to see that same show, my answer would probably be no. I Nullity spend my money to go see something that makes me want to fall asleep :however there were performances like Disney, or anything Bach or Beethoven that Nullity be all that horrible to see). The music was enjoyable and I really liked the experience Except for the old bald guy who kept turning around and giving me dirty looks for taking notes to write this report.

Monday, December 2, 2019

Operational Planning as a Essential Element in Strategic Planning

Introduction Operational planning and management is an essential element in strategic planning. Various firms adopt different strategies in order to ensure that their operations are run in an effective and efficient manner.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Operational Planning as a Essential Element in Strategic Planning specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Different firms adopt different planning strategies in order to achieve their specific goals and objectives in the short run and in the long run (Eli, 2006). The strategy that a firm may adopt may depend on its operations, size and culture. This paper will therefore discuss strategic planning and other factors that contribute to successful planning. It shall focus on issues such as contingency planning, budgeting, employee monitoring, and performance indicators. Strategic Planning A strategic plan is a process adopted by the management of an entity to meet specific goals and objectives within a given time frame. It clearly defines the objectives of the entity and assesses the internal and external environment. Strategic planning takes place through a series of steps. Development of visions, missions, goals and objectives are but some of the critical steps that are involved in the process of planning. To attain these objectives, the entity devises several procedures. An analysis of changes occurring in both the external and internal environment is critical in ensuring that a company attains its objectives. After obtaining information from the environment scan, managers are required to match the strengths of the organization to opportunities. The process of matching the strengths with the opportunities is known as strategy formulation. This process ensures that the entity can develop a competitive advantage (Roberts and Neilson, 2003). Once a company formulates a strategy, they have to implement it. The implementation process is carried out usi ng budgets, organizational procedures and programs.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Strategic planning incorporates several aspects of the company to ensure that the company runs smoothly. Budgeting process is one of key processes that enhance the planning process. Budgets as Tools for Planning In most entities, budgeting is a key element in financial management (Roberts and Neilson, 2003). The use of a budget assists managers to plan and utilize the company resources effectively. Clear understanding of principles of budgeting ensures that managers can formulate a comprehensive financial plan. Budgeting process is a microcosm element of strategic planning (Roberts and Neilson, 2003). Therefore, after yielding information from strategic planning, managers relate this information to the actual activities of the entity. This process is recognized as the operational plan and man agement usually finds a need to value the plan. Companies incur operational costs when they start trading. It is these costs among other costs that appear in the budget. Budgets are usually prepared based on the plan of the organization. Organizations use budgeting to monitor the cash flow of an entity. Cash flow forecast enables an entity to anticipate the inflows and outflows of cash. Information may be used to plan for future events. A budget maps out the resource flow in and out of the organization. By watching how the resources flow, it is possible for management to make sound decisions about an entity. Managers use budgets as indicators of performance. Performance of an entity is important in planning process. Budgets may be highly useful when identifying key performance indicators in an entity.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Operational Planning as a Essential Element in Strategic Planning specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Role of Key Performance Indicators (KPI) in Planning Organizations use key performance Indicators to enhance the process of planning. Key performance indicators are the financial and non-financial measures used by business entities to help in evaluating the success of a business. The success of an entity is evaluated in relation to the long-term goals of the business. The main role of KPI is to give meaning to the objectives outlined by an entity. Therefore, key performance indicators give meaning to the strategic plan and objectives of an entity. The KPIs identified must relate to the strategic plan of the entity. This is because many aspects of an entity can be measured to show how a company performs. Before implementing KPIs, managers are required to consider several important factors. Implementation of KPIs requires an entity to consider several processes that affect the key elements of planning. KPIs are important in assisting an entity to attain its goals as they have been set in the strategic plan. Therefore, when establishing KPIs, managers must recognize that proper governance is the key to incorporating KPIs into the strategic plan. Moreover, managers need to understand that these performance indicators are what attract investors. In this light of events, KPIs do not need to be comprehensive but instead they should cover the particular areas of concern, especially areas that investors concentrate on. To ensure that the KPIs set by an entity remain valid for an extended period of time, contingency planning is necessary. Contingency planning ensures that the organization prepares well for a variety of situations that may occur in the future.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Role of Contingency Planning Contingency planning entails anticipating all the possible scenarios that may challenge a business entity and forming a comprehensive plan that may be used to avoid these challenges (Yuko and Karen, 2001). Instead of managers assuming that everything may be alright, they should identify contingencies and prepare for them. Use of contingency planning ensures that firms are better placed to cope with future uncertainties in the market. When managers plan for contingencies, they are able to avoid the shock that may come with market disability or natural causes. The use of contingency planning also reduces the risk of delays and indecision due to occurrence of an unusual event (Yuko and Karen, 2001). Unusual events in the market or within the organization may lead to the company halting its operations. In cases where the company planned for contingencies, it may continue its operations and maintain its profitability. Firms with contingent plans tend to react rationally in unplanned situations. When coming up with a contingent plan a firm should determine what reason behind the plan. Therefore preparation of a comprehensive, focused and practical plan require expertise and skills. Managers as well as employees are required to take part when formulating a contingent plan. They should identify the key processes and operations then incorporate them in a contingent plan to ensure the long-term survival of a firm is secure. Strategies Used to Monitor Employees Employer need to monitor the activities of employees to ensure that they are performing their tasks. Employers use different methods to monitor employees. Some employers use computerized system to collect, store, and analyze employee activities (Mishra and Mathers, 1998). In most cases employee monitoring is used in projecting the performance of the company. Good employee input and output may be assumed to cause good performance. Therefore, employers deem the act of monitoring employee s as important. Firms perform the process of monitoring employees using contracts. In this case, every employee is given a contract outlining his duties and responsibilities. At the end of the contract, an employee performance is evaluated against those set in a contract. If he or she has a good performance then the employment contract may be renewed. Another strategy of monitoring employee is being actively involved in the activities they undertake. From observing the processes used an employer can determine the level of competence. Managers use a variety of methods monitor employees. Each employer chooses the method that suits his or her entity. Conclusion Strategic planning, budgeting, employee monitoring, and performance indicators play an important role in operation planning. Companies should integrate all these elements in the operation plan to ensure that the company operations run smoothly. In addition to these elements, companies should incorporate contingency planning in o rder to safeguard its interests from future challenges. References Eli, J L 2006, ‘The Importance of Strategic Planning’, Practical Decisions, Vol. 20 No. 1, pp. 1-3 Mishra, J M and Mathers, S 1998, ‘Employee Monitoring: Privacy in the Workplace?’, SAM Advanced Management Journal, Vol. 63 No.5, pp. 4-11 Roberts, K and Neilson, P 2000, The Strategy Focused Organization: How Balanced Scorecard Companies Thrive in the New Business Environment, Harvard Business School Press, Boston Mass. Yuko, M and Karen, C S 2001, ‘Embracing Disaster With Contingency Planning’, Risk Management, Vol. 48 No. 5, pp.18-20. This essay on Operational Planning as a Essential Element in Strategic Planning was written and submitted by user Gerardo Wynn to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

The Effects of Alcohol on Motor Skills. Essays

The Effects of Alcohol on Motor Skills. Essays The Effects of Alcohol on Motor Skills. Essay The Effects of Alcohol on Motor Skills. Essay Alcohol is a liquid distilled product of fermented fruits, grains and vegetables used as solvent. It is probably the most widely used and abused substance that requires the customers to be given age before it is sold or used but this is not always the case because the use of under age drinkers are on increase.Alcohol is also a central nervous system depressant which affects virtually every organ in the body and chronic use can lead to numerous preventable diseases including alcoholism. Examples of Alcohol Vodka, whiskey, Beer.Alcoholism- Is a illness involving the excessive use of alcoholic beverages such as Vodka it is an addiction to the substance found in alcoholic drink called â€Å"ethanol† which is a psychoactive agent that affect the central nervous system of a human being. Ref. Martin et al 2007.Substance Abuse – Is a phrase being used by psychologist to refer to someone who poses a treat to himself or other people. People that drink and drive under the influenc e of alcohol area treat to themselves and others.Neuron activity in the brain controls one’s behavior, the use of alcohol controls the neuron activity, which now becomes suppressed by excessive use of alcohol,The drinker becomes less active, relaxed, and more outgoing. The motor skill co-ordination have now being impaired by this substance (alcohol), and the drinker will experience difficulty thinking straight, and clearly the more the alcohol consumed the further the impairment of the neuron activity in the brain, which eventually lead to loss of activity, memory loss, control of movement (Stritzke et al 1996).statistics have shown that the numbers of male drinkers are higher than the female drinkers by a ratio of five to one (Lauer 1989), as cited by Martin et al 2007.National data also shows alcohol related illness such as cirrhosis, and head/neck cancer are in the increase in the U.K, and E.U. (fact sheet Alcohol consumption harm in the U.K E.U, London IAS, 2003)This is what prompted us to ask the question!!!At what degree can alcohol impair an individuals motor skill abilities?Method of Background theory.The objective of this research was to test cognitive, and motor skills were not equally sensitive to a moderate dose of alcohol.20 male participants between the ages of 18-30, yrs were divided into 2 groups of 10. 60 male participants aged between 18-30, yrs were divided into 4 groups of 14. Al participants were healthy social drinkers, and randomly chosen from a group of volunteers from a university psychology dept. All participants performed a motor skill task with Pursuit Rotor, and Rapid Information Processing tasks.All participants attended a drug free task practice session where in the test was explained,and they completed a Drinking Habit Questionnaire to highlight any existing drinking problems.All participants were then asked to do the PR, ; then the RIP test 4 times in succession with 3 minute intervals of rest between each set of tasks . This was done to establish that results from the real tests could be attributed to the affect of alcohol on performance, and not unfamiliarity with the test content.All participants fasted for 4 hrs ; had no alcohol for 24 hrs. They were called in 1 to 10 days later for the â€Å"treatment session†, and all had to give breath samples to verify zero Blood Alcohol Concentrations (BAC).After this participants performed both PR ; RIP tasks to provide a drug free baseline with which to compare results from PR ; RIP tasks performed under the influence of alcohol.The participants were given 1 to 2 ratio of alcohol ; placebo ; carbonated mix, depending on which groups they have been allocated.The difference on experiment 1 ; 2 are that the participants in experiment 2 were being told that if they got the same score as the baseline score they would receive cash for the test. Pursuit Rotor (PR) Task consisted of a computer, monitor, and mouse on a tabletop, 75 cm above the floor. The participants sat in a chair directly in front of a computer screen that displayed a rectangular track (14 cm by 11.5 cm), and an on screen target (diameter = 1.3 cm) that moved at 23 rpm clockwise around the track. They tracked the target by moving a computer mouse to control an on screen circular cross-hair (diameter 1.3 cm), and were instructed to keep the cross-hair over the rotating target as long as possible during a test. One test consisted of three 50 second trials separated by a 20 second between-trial interval. The computer measured performance as a percentage of time on target during each test.Rapid Information Processing Task is a self-paced computerized task measures the rate of information processing. Participants sat in front of a computer screen while a fixed pseudo random sequence of 250 digits consisting of the numbers 1 to 8 was presented on the computer monitor. The entire sequence contained 11 triads of even digits, and 10 triads of odd digits. The yellow digits were 11.5 cm by 6 cm in size, and were presented one at a time on a blue background.Participants simply rested a finger on the #1 key on the computer number pad, and were told to press the key whenever they say any 3 consecutive even digits or any 3 consecutive odd digits. They were told to try to attain the highest digit presentation rate possible by correctly identifying as many of the digits triads as they could.The initial digit presentation rate was 90 digits per minute, and each correct response to a triad increased the speed of digit presentation by decreasing the inter stimulus interval (ISI) by 33 ms. A failure to respond to a triad, a correct response to triad after the next digit in the sequence had been presented or a response to a non-triad slowed the presentation rate by increasing the ISI by 33ms.The computer measured an individual’s rate of information processing by the mean number of digits presented per minute during a 5 minute test with greater digits per minute indicating faster information processing.In both experiments there was no significant difference in the results. It made no difference that in experiment 2 they were giving cash as an incentive.The conclusion (results) of this study indicates how disagreement over the sensitivity of cognitive, and motor skills to a moderate dose of alcohol may occur when impairment is only assessed at some particular BAC’s.;Method of my written proposalI will like my study to be conducted in Lab conditions.The participants would be psychology students from the University of East London, and would be over the legal age limit to consume alcohol.They must be social or regular drinkers.Participants would be randomly selected.I will apply the between test, there will be two groups.The independent variable would be one group receiving two drinks of 2.5 mils vodka mixed with 2.5 mils carbonated water, whilst group two would receive two drinks of 2.5 milscarbonated water, but the glass would b e sprayed with alcohol to give a strong alcoholic scent.The Dependant variable would be a test called the Rapid Information Processing Task Test.This test is a computerized test which is self paced. It measures the rate of information processing, and would last for five minutes.On the screen would appear a sequence of 250 digits. Participants would have to sit in front of the computer, and simply press the number one key whenever they saw any three consecutive even or odd digits at any time. Their aim is to achieve the highest digit presentation rate by identifying three consecutive digits.MaterialsThe materials to be used for this study is Laboratory, The participants are Undergraduate psychology students, computer, Vodka, Carbonated water and alcohol.ProcedureEthical Considerations.All participants to complete a general questionnaire, form and signed consent.We will seek to obtain approval from University of Human Research.Participants will be informed of their right to withdraw f rom the study at any time.Experiment to take place in Lab conditions.All personal information would be kept confidential, locked away, and password protected.Participants to be debriefed after experiment.ReferencesAlcohol Consumption and harm in the U.K and EU.(2003). London, IAS, Fact Sheet.Fogarty, N. J., ; Voget-Sprott, M. (2002). Cognitive processes and motor skills differ in sensitivity to alcohol impairment. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 63, 404-411.Martin, N. G., Carlson, R. N., ; Buskist, W. (2007). Psychology. (3rd ed), England, Pearson Education Limited.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Practicing a Presentation - Advanced Business English

Practicing a Presentation - Advanced Business English Mike: Anne, can I run the new presentation by you?Anne: Certainly, Id love to hear some of the new concepts. Mike: OK, here goes ... On behalf of myself and Sport Outfitters, Id like to welcome you. My names Mike Andersen. This morning, Id like to outline our new campaign concepts that have been recently developed.Anne: Excuse me, who was invited to this conference? Mike: Our sales representatives from our branch offices were asked to come. I think a number of upper-management representatives were also invited.Anne: Thats good. Our marketing approach is going to be completely revamped. Mike: And thats why we need everyone to be informed. So, Ill continue. Youll be given the background and Ill talk you through the results of some of our recent market studies.Anne: How many surveys were completed? Mike: I think about 100,000 were returned to the company. Our marketing team was very pleased with the response.Anne: OK, continue... Mike: The presentation has been divided into three parts. First, our past approach. Secondly, present changes that will be made. Thirdly, future forecasts ...Anne: That sounds good. Mike: If you have any questions, please dont hesitate to ask. At the end of this presentation, a short advertisement will be shown to give you an idea of where we are going.Anne: Good job Mike. I hope your graphics are being put together by Bob. Mike: Of course they are, you know hes the best! Multiple Choice Comprehension Questions 1. Why does Mike want to speak to Anne? to practice his presentationto get her opinion on the new campaignto show her some pictures 2. Besides sales representatives, who will be attending the conference? marketing staffsome representatives from upper managementmachine workers 3. What is going to be completely changed? the surveysthe product linethe marketing approach 4. How many surveys were completed and returned to the company? 10,000100,0001,000,000 5. Who are the graphics going to be done by? MikeBobAnne Answer Key Answers are in  bold. 1. Why does Mike want to speak to Anne? to practice his presentationto get her opinion on the new campaignto show her some pictures 2. Besides sales representatives, who will be attending the conference? marketing staffsome representatives from upper managementmachine workers 3. What is going to be completely changed? the surveysthe product linethe marketing approach 4. How many surveys were completed and returned to the company? 10,000100,0001,000,000 5. Who are the graphics going to be done by? MikeBobAnne More Business Resources Business English for ESL LearnersSample Business MeetingHow to Write a Business Report for English  Learners

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Issues for Multi-national Organisation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Issues for Multi-national Organisation - Essay Example Through operating in various economies in the world, these companies have not only enhanced their brand value but have also done the same for the living standard of many individuals worldwide. However, it cannot be ignored that internationalization of business increases the overall risks of the corporate firms in the modern world. The essay will analyze about the various types of business problems faced by the multinational corporations in the contemporary world. Critical Literature Review Comparing and Contrasting Theories Concepts and Research Findings The business challenges and opportunities faced by the multinational corporations in the contemporary world are increasing rapidly overtime. Especially after the emergence of globalization and liberalization, the developing countries have turned out to be the emerging economies in the world. In China, by the year 2003, about 41000 foreign investors had set up their business operations (Weisert, 2001). With the benefits and help provi ded by the World Trade Organization, the country has also rendered several opportunities for these new foreign companies operating in their economy. However, inspite of these lucrative opportunities, most of them set up their business in China through joint ventures or mergers. For instance, Siemens has set its business firm in China long back in 1982 through a representative’s office (Fryxell, Butler, and Choi, 2004). Coca-cola is another company that operates in China through a joint business with a company which provides similar facilities in Tianjin (Weisert, 2001).These economies (emerging ones like, China) have significantly helped to increase the opportunities of multinational corporations. However, it is also observed that with these growing opportunities, the risks of these firms are also increasing over time. A detailed analysis shows that the extent of challenges faced by these giant organizations is unlimited. The context of this essay will focus on only one of th ese issues which are faced by these corporations. The human resource challenges that are faced by the multinational business firms would be discussed in this essay in details. McKinsey Company in Shanghai has reported that the scope of hiring skilled analysts in China is very low (Farrell and Grant, 2005). Ford in Geelong Australia has claimed to cease its manufacturing unit in the country because the nation’s high currency value have forced the employees to demand for higher wage rates that has excessively augmented the operating cost of the company. One of the most important operations that are executed by any multinational corporation is human resource management. Noe, et al. (2006, p.5) stated that human resource management is that segment of an organization which helps to recruit and develop officials in an organization and also facilitates in sufficing an organizations objectives. The use of human resource management model by the multinational corporations has increased in order to reduce the difficulties in of human resource management (Chen and Wilson, 2003). The practice of standardization of human resource management has been abolished because the impact of environmental and structural changes in the multinational corporations has heightened overtime (McGraw and Harley, 2003). Individuals from different economies differ

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Potential for market manipulation in commodities futures markets, the Essay

Potential for market manipulation in commodities futures markets, the implications of such activities and the ability of regulators to combat this behaviour - Essay Example He exclaimed that the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) should be more active and empowered for adapting affirmative regulations apart from doing their predefined activities. The regulations will maintain an orderly and fair market. Thus, the CFTC will be requiring more resources than before. Markham has argued that these will reduce market manipulation and the additional cost will have limited effect on the total manipulation. The paper elaborates the effects of manipulation on commodity futures markets and also lays emphasis on its potential to cope up with the manipulation level. The paper also highlights on the trading behaviour of the major participants of the market like the customers and dealers. The elaboration of the topic is based on the futures trades that are reported to the governmental regulators by the various dealers and exchanges. The response of the prices is selective to the trading actions of the group which is selected as the market participants which a re relevant at the time (Attari, Antonio and Martin, 2005). The growth of the future market in the past thirty years has been explosive. The volume of future trading was about 3.9 million in 1960. The volume of contracts increased with the time which was due to the modifications and changes in the monetary policy. Inflation during 1960 and 1970s had also created dramatic impact on the commodity prices and thus there is huge development in the financial future contracts. The trading in the futures market has outstripped the trading in agricultural commodity future market (Pirrong, 2010). Along with the increasing trading volume in commodity future market, many issues were raised against the trading system. The commodity futures market in United States have developed to a great extent in the past but at the end of the Civil War the contracts for the delivery of grains were switched into convertible contracts that were often used for offsetting each other. Thus, the speculators

Sunday, November 17, 2019

The Pros And Cons of Boot Camps Essay Example for Free

The Pros And Cons of Boot Camps Essay Boot Camps came into prominence in the 1980s. It was initially conceived as an effective tool for resolving behavioral problems of teens. This approach was derived from the military style of correcting the behavior of erring members of the military. Boot Camps are short programs that may last from 3 to 6 months. The youth offender is housed in a facility along with other youth offenders. This paper will delve on the effects, pros and cons, and background of juvenile boot camps. The Pros And Cons of Boot Camps An Overview of Boot Camps Juvenile delinquency is one of the more glaring issues facing the youth of today. At present, the number of juvenile defenders all over the world has grown into alarming proportions. Juvenile delinquency takes place during adolescence, a period which is marked by a transition from childhood to adulthood. At this stage of their lives, they start to become independent and away from the guidance of their parents. Although the youth is acknowledged as the holder of the key to the future, it is a sad fact that most adolescents are now confronted by many issues that can put their future in peril – violence, drug abuse, prostitution. Juvenile delinquency is regarded as more of a social than political problem. It stems from various factors such as peer pressure and family influence. However, realizing that there is a need to help these youth offenders, the government has stepped in and implemented several measures by setting up facilities that will save the future of these young people. What are Boot Camps? Otherwise known as â€Å"shock incarceration,† boot camps became prevalent in the 1980s. The concept was patterned after the military boot camps and was grounded on the principle of using military discipline in shaping youth offenders to become productive members of the society. Compared to the overcrowded detention centers, boot camps offered reduced per-bed cost (Hanusa, 2006). Boot camps are facilities that are designed to reform delinquents by employing a military type of correction. The main purpose of these boot camps is to teach the delinquent how to respect authority, adhere to rules, and shape up their behavior at home and school. In these facilities, therapy and psychological intervention is non-existent. Instead, military exercises, discipline, and rigid physical training are used to reform the offender (Boot Camps Info, n. d. ). There are many kinds of boot camps. Some of them are run by the state as an alternative for juvenile jail. Others are privately owned with tight security. Guards are placed in boot camps for no reason than to make sure that the inmates will follow the rules. The punishment for breaking the guidelines in the facility includes extended runs and obstacle courses. The idea of boot camps is to break the â€Å"spirit† of the adolescent and lead to corrective actions (Boot Camps Info, n. d. ). The History of Boot Camps Due to the increasing number of adolescent youths who got imprisoned in the last ten years, as well as the different opinions regarding the role that punishment and treatment play in correcting offenders, boot camps have emerged as an alternative to incarceration. Boot camps started in Georgia in 1983. Since then, they have expanded to twenty five states and have gained fame for their military-type approach. In a survey spearheaded by the General Accounting Office, it was revealed that during its first ten years, there were 29 boot camps offering their programs in 29 states with a total population of 10,065. Since then, Michigan and Texas have shown a drop in their population. New York and Georgia own the largest boot camps in the country. Their combined population comprises fifty percent of the national total (Parent, 2003). While the focus of first-generation boot camps centered on the military-type approach involving â€Å"discipline, physical training, and hard work,† second-generation facilities utilized rehabilitation through â€Å"alcohol and drug treatment† (Parent, 2003). Likewise, second-generation boot camps introduced new treatment methods such as pro-social skills training, electronic monitoring, and home confinement, to name a few. By the middle of the 1990s, boot camps existing in the country started to decline. At the dawn of the 21st century, only 51 boot camps are left operating. Likewise, the population of boot camp inmates has considerably dropped more than 30 percent. Reasons Behind Boot Camps Because of the escalating number of youth offenders in the United States, more and more states are now setting up boot camps. These facilities take the place of youth correctional facilities. Most of them adopt the military type of approach in improving the behavior and attitude of the youth offender. They use physical training and conditioning and follow a structured program. However, it is interesting to note that these facilities or barracks are not entirely for problem teenagers. There are facilities designed for the youth without any criminal record. They are no different from other camps, except that they follow strict procedures. How Do Boot Camps Work? Boot camps are patterned after military-type minimum-security prisons. The conditions are not similar to a regular prison facility and the duration of stay is much shorter which could range from three to six months. While majority of the strategy are modeled after military training, juvenile boot camps vary considerably with a standard prison set-up. These facilities provide â€Å"intermediate sanction† in the jargon of juvenile justice. The punishment in a boot camp is more restrictive compared to probation, but not as severe as imprisonment or detention (Begin, 2002). Boot camps in the United States accept male and female delinquents between 17 to 25 years old. Some inmates were admitted to the program through the â€Å"back door† (Begin, 2002). They were chosen by correctional officers from other offenders who were sentenced to serve a regular prison term. Other inmates came from the â€Å"front door† after the court sentenced them to one term in a boot camp (Begin, 2002). When the offender has already completed their sentence, boot camp officials would determine the method of after-care support that the community would provide. Offenders would either receive regular probation, intensive probation supervision, or electronic monitoring (Begin, 2006). The Effects of Boot Camps According to a study conducted by the Washington State Institute for Public Policy and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, there is no evidence that boot camps indeed reduce the rate of recidivism. Usually, staying in a boot camp is much cheaper than detention in a juvenile center. However, the amount of money that will be saved by the offender will be determined by the length of sentence, which is commonly shorter than incarceration (Hanusa, 2006). Boot camps have shown both positive and negative effects on the individual. The approach in boot camps is simple and that is reward for good work and punishment for violations. Most of the inmates admitted in boot camps are troubled teenagers who are either drop outs in the school where they are studying or teens who have behavior problems at home (Troubled Teens Guide, n. d. ). The concept of boot camps started in the military. All the major sectors of the armed forces run their own boot camp programs. In the military, the purpose of these facilities is to train new recruits in several aspects such as physical conditioning, using weapons, comradeship, being a leader, and others. The participants of the boot camps stay in the facility for two weeks without sleep, communication, and food. Aside from that, the participants are made to live in diverse conditions in order to test how far they can go (Tobey, 2006). Since the inmate experience a new environment and share the facility with other participants, they learn to adapt themselves with the new surrounding away from the company of previous friends, old habits and behaviors. Since the old environment has disappeared from their system, the inmate starts to incorporate new attitudes and behaviors. Likewise, he or she learns to mingle with a new set of friends. This is a positive aspect of boot camps (Troubled Teens Guide, n. d. ). The MacKenzie Study Recognized as the most intensive and systematic study on the effects of boot camps, Doris MacKenzie conducted a research in 1994. It incorporated programs which emphasized on supplementary programming and increased supervision when released. The research utilized control groups to make way for comparison of effects in connection with other sanctions. Likewise, the study measured recidivism in order to determine its effects on the attitude and behavior of the community (Bilchik, 1997). The MacKenzie-Souryal study reached the following findings: 1. Although the boot camp participants concluded their term with a positive result compared to standard inmates, there was no difference between the participants and sample population as to objectively measuring the changes towards anti-social behavior while serving their term (Bilchik, 1997). 2. Boot camp graduates had a hard time coping up with community assistance when looking for a job, pursuing an education, finding a home, or being financially secured and treated (Bilchik, 1997). Even though they served their sentence in the boot camps, the amount of recidivism in the United States did not decrease. In the three states were the incidence of recidivism reflected a drop in the rate, the program centered on rehabilitation and intensive supervision upon release ((Bilchik, 1997). In addition, the Mackenzie study proved that boot camps contribute to the possibility of extending incarceration if the charge is life imprisonment in order to take part in the boot camp program. Using intensive supervision after completion of sentence will most likely lead to re-incarceration ((Bilchik, 1997). National Institute of Justice A team of six researchers under the National Institute of Justice also conducted their own study (Bourque, Cronin, Pearson, Felker, Han, Hill, 1996). The research involves three demonstration boot camp projects for young re-offenders aged 15 to 18 years old. Likewise, they evaluated boot camp inmates who are in the after-case program. No control groups or long-term follow up were provided to the survey participants. After the study, it was revealed that although there were promising results at the end of boot camp, the programs used in the study reflected increased rates of attrition as a result of non-compliance, absenteeism, and re-offense while in the aftercare phase (Bourque, Cronin, Pearson, Felker, Han, Hill, 1996). . Moreover, the NIJ study yielded the following findings: 1) With careful planning and implementation, boot camp programs will be able to meet their desired goal (Bourque, et al. , 1996). 2) The success rate of first year boot camps were high ranging between 80 percent and 94 percent (Bourque, et al. , 1996). 3) The boot camp programs involved in the study showed a marked improvement in the educational performance, overall behavior, and physical fitness of the inmates. Likewise, the rate of improvement in the aspect of self-discipline, respect for authority, personal appearance, and teamwork (Bourque, et al. , 1996). 4) Inmates who completed the boot camp program within 3-months and continued to receive supervision from the program for a minimum of 5 months showed positive improvement in their attitude and behavior (Bourque, et al. , 1996). 5) Boot camps are most likely more affordable than prisons found in the State or local prison facilities (Bourque, et al. , 1996). During the early part of the 1990s, some boot camp programs started taking in female inmates. However, a study conducted in 1992 revealed that since these facilities were programmed to admit men, accepting female inmates can become a dilemma. The study revealed the following findings about female inmates (Bourque, et al. , 1996, p. 3): †¢ They face the possibility of becoming single parents †¢ They are prone to experiencing physical or sexual abuse †¢ They are inclined to exhibit a different â€Å"history and pattern of drug use† (Bourque, et al. , 1996, p. 3) †¢ They face the possibility of becoming out of job after discharge from the boot camp What Boot Camp Proponents Say Despite of the many questions that the opponents of boot camp hurl at the program, people who are in favor of boot camps as a correction method raise several points that will prove that this kind of program helps participants become productive members of society upon their release from the camp. In her article, Hanusa (2006) stated some of the arguments in support of the program: 1. The atmosphere pervading in the camp is ideal for fostering positive growth and change (Hanusa, 2006). 2. The program structure and control personnel foster a secured atmosphere where fighting between inmates would be avoided and would not fall victims of other youths than when they are in regular correctional centers (Hanusa, 2006). 3. The addition of military structure can foster camaraderie as well as respect for staff (Hanusa, 2006). What Critics Say About Boot Camps On the other hand, critics of the program also raised several arguments about boot camps: 1. The confrontational nature of boot camps violates the kind of positive interpersonal relationships that the offender needs in order to achieve positive growth. They claim that this is against the aim of therapeutic treatment. The stringent policies implemented by the camp may cause the inmates to develop fear against the personnel of the camp (Hanusa, 2006). 2. The boot camps focus on group activities does not provide room for addressing individual problems of the youth (Hanusa, 2006). According to Susan Colling, a former juvenile programs Director in Colorado, one of the reasons why boot camps are a failure is because it does not provide aftercare assistance. An inmate may do well inside the boot camp but once they graduate from the program and sent back to their community, they will most likely find a hard time coping up with the new situation because they got used to an environment that is controlled and structured (Hanusa, 2006).

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Essay --

Notorious gang approaches a man with a red shirt and beats him to death for sleeping with the wrong woman. The man wronged the gang first, but the gang overreacted by beating him to death, who is at fault? Luckily, we have laws created by the Legislature to protect us and guide us in such situations, laws the president at that time agreed upon and that are interpreted by the judicial system. This is known as the system of checks and balances, introduced by our nation’s forefathers in attempt to balance the power in this new country. Though it was obviously necessary back then, it is still necessary today in this very age. The system of checks and balances plays a major role when our forefathers were writing the constitution as they were making sure no one area of government had too much power of the others. Using checks and balances, our forefathers made sure each one of the three branches of government can limit the powers of the others. It is a cycle that often begins when the legislative branch introduces a bill. Then the bill heads off to the executive branch, where the President decides whether he (or yet to be she) believes that the bill is good for the country. If the bill seems good for the country, the President signs the bill, and it becomes a law. It is called a veto when the President doesn’t sign the bill. However, if ⅔ of the legislature votes to pass the bill, the legislative branch can override the executive veto, and the bill will then become a law. Once a law is in place, it is up to the judicial branch to interpret said law and determine, through cases, whether or no t the law is constitutional. If a citizen of the United States believes a law is unfair, a lawsuit can be filed. Lawyers will argue for and ag... ...very nationality found was included, as well as an equal number of male and female). Our country needs this system now in this very age not only to satisfy the 22% of students that know what the system is, but in order to make sure our politicians do not acquire so much influence and/or power that they can control this beautiful, diverse, and wondrously helping nation where the people who live in it can follow their dreams until the end of their lives. The system of checks and balances are necessary today just as they are necessary back when they were written by the forefathers of our nation. The judicial branch interprets laws made from bills signed by the President who receives those bills from the Legislature. And so the victims of crimes are in luck. Crimes such as the murder of an man by a gang for sleeping with the wrong woman may then be brought to justice.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

A history of African American slaves Essay

But as mentioned, may also argue for the more positive portrayal of John Brown in writings and media. They believe that negative portrayal of John Brown gives an unfair interpretation of his history. They argue that many of the writers who have put John Brown in a bad light let their writings be tainted with bias, and so some of them veered away from impartial interpretation of facts that surround Brown. Many argue that John Brown, as a human being, is a product of his past, and how he was shaped by his society. These people say that as much as you can’t blame John Brown like you can’t fully blame a suicide bomber for dying and killing for his convictions and beliefs. He was one of those who viewed society through a revolutionary lens, only that he let his eyes go awry by choosing violent methods. It could also be that he was pressured into going through violent acts because he wanted immediate change, and saw that relatively peaceful methods like passing legislations were not effecting these changes fast enough. It can be recalled that he once tried to use negotiation to settle the prices and terms in the wool industry, yet to no avail. Several factors like this could have led to this kind of mindset that he had. Some people view him as a hero, as proved by many edifices and statues built in his honor. For some people, especially the African-Americans, his motives were enough to proclaim him as a hero and a martyr for the nation. This point proves that personal history of the race or culture greatly affects the lens through which people look at things in the environment. Since the ancestors of these people were the ones defended by Brown, they feel indebted to him in some way. Without his armed action against the southerners, then major recognition of their peoples’ freedom wouldn’t have occurred. The people that John Brown tried to save were the ones who look up to him as a liberator still. From when he was alive to when he was executed, the public viewed him as both a violent rogue and a patriot. However multifaceted the views of John Brown’s character may be, it is important that we ground our views on the facts and truths found in history. There are many things we have to consider about his personality, character and motivations, and these things are needed to form a good opinion and view of Brown. CONCLUSION John Brown supported ideologies that were unaccepted during his time, and used methods that were unacceptable both when he lived and after this period. In his time, he garnered both the dissent of both slavery supporters and pacifist abolitionists, and the support of some abolitionists. The presence of multiple opinions was also evident even after his death. His image still acquires the same two sides of public opinion no matter how times have changed. John Brown is an American historical figure whose image contains many facets to it because people from different times had different â€Å"lenses† or factors like values systems, cultural and social backgrounds to view his life with. These factors influence how people form opinions and views. Whatever â€Å"lens† we may have and use in viewing John Brown’s image or any other thing outside of ourselves, it is important that we remain accurate and faithful to truth and fact as much as possible. BIBLIOGRAPHY Berlin, Ira. Generations of Captivity: A History of African American Slaves.United States of America: President and Fellows of Harvard College , 2003. Catterall, Helen T. Judicial Cases Concerning Slavery and the Negro. New York: Octagon Books, 1968. â€Å"Civil War History†. Southernhistory. net. http://www. southernhistory. net/modules. php? op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=9406. (accessed April 9, 2009) Chowder, Ken. The Father of American Terrorism. New York: American Heritage, 2002. DeCaro Jr. , Louis A. â€Å"People’s Ally, White People’s Bogeyman: A John Brown Story† in Andrew Taylor and Eldrid Herrington (editors), The Afterlife of John Brown. 2005 DeCaro Jr. , Louis A. John Brown–The Cost of Freedom: Selections from His Life & Letters. 2007. Fried, Albert. John Brown’s Journey: Notes & Reflections on His America and Mine. Garden City, New York: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1978. Gallay, Alan. The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002. Genovese, Eugene D. Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made. New York: Random House, Inc. , 1974. Genovese, Eugene D. The Political Economy of Slavery: Studies in the Economy and Society of the Slave South. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1989. Genovese, Eugene D. , and Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, Fruits of Merchant Capital: Slavery and Bourgeois Property in the Rise and Expansion of Capitalism. England: Oxford University Press, 1983. â€Å"John Brown†. Spartacus Educational. http://www. spartacus. schoolnet. co. uk/USASbrown. html (accessed April 9, 2009) Kolchin, Peter. American Slavery, 1619-1877. Canada: HarperCollins Canada Ltd. , 1994. Olsen, Otto H. â€Å"Historians and the Extent of Slave Ownership in the Southern United States†. Southernhistory. net http://www. southernhistory. net/modules. php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=9406 (accessed April 9, 2009) Partyka, Jennifer. â€Å"Brown, John†. The Pennsylvania Center for the Book. http://pabook. libraries. psu. edu/palitmap/bios/Brown__John. html (accessed April 9, 2009). Reynolds, David S. John Brown, Abolitionist: The Man Who Killed Slavery, Sparked the Civil War, and Seeded Civil Right. New York: Vintage Books, 2005. Rhodes, James Ford. History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850. Norwood, Mass. , 1906. â€Å"Slaves and the Courts, 1740-1860†. The Library of Congress. http://lcweb2. loc. gov/ammem/sthtml/sthome. html (accessed April 9, 2009).

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Ethical Egoism

Ethical egoism, in my belief, is not the moral theory that men should follow or live by. Simply put, my belief stems from the multiple inconsistencies and contradictions that are inherent in the said normative system. Self-interest and self-preservation, although very valuable, are not, in my opinion, the primary factors that should drive a man’s life. It is because, I believe, by purely following one’s own interests, man fails to consider the greater picture, that being the peace and harmony in society.More importantly, I believe that man can be driven by other desires and motives in his moral actions. Hobbes’ assertion is that man should use his power to preserve himself and to do what he must in order to satisfy his own interests. His fundamental assumption regarding the nature of man is that man is an agent of self-interest who is prepared to harm others in order to obtain what he believes is best for him. Furthermore, Hobbes states that man is governed by hi s own reason and that every man has the right to everything. Such statement is what Hobbes calls the fundamental law of nature.However, Hobbes believes that if it is in the self-interest and preservation of one’s life to enter into a covenant with another, man is bound to abide by such covenant. Contracts are reached when both parties feel that it is in their best interests to enter and agree to the terms. Breaking a covenant or a contract is considered unjust in Hobbes’ view. Hobbes’ idea is that man must submit to certain moral rules out of fear of conflict which is to his best interests. Basically, Hobbes suggested that a human being acts morally because it is in his self-interest to do so.There have been various philosophers who have raised arguments and objections against Hobbes’ views. One of such philosophers is H. A. Prichard. In Prichard’s point of view, there is no need to whether self-interest and morality run in parallel with each other . Instead, he suggests that human beings have reasons other than self-interest to act morally. One such reason is the innate desire in humans to do the right thing. Prichard suggests that having motives other than self-interest allows us to determine whether an individual who has done something moral deserves praise or not.Without the presence of other motives, self-interest will be the only driving factor and thus, will remove any possible distinction between two persons committing the same moral act. Brody’s argument with regards to the basis of morality on self-interest is that human beings can have other motives for being moral. Admitting that all actions are based on the satisfaction of a certain desire, Brody states that humans may have desires for something else other than his own well-being. Brody believes that selfish motives are indeed a possible source of moral actions.However, he asserts that this does not mean that all moral actions stem from selfish motives alon e. In other words, egoism is not clearly established as the sole source of morality. My belief that ethical egoism is not the correct moral theory agrees with Brody’s assertions. Aside from the points that Brody has raised, I believe that ethical egoism fails to consider the possibility that men act not for their own interests alone. The interests of another person may drive the man to act morally especially if such a person is deeply valued. For instance a parent may act morally not for her own interests but for that of her children.Ethical egoism fails to consider that human nature includes certain emotions that are driving factors of one’s actions. Emotions or feelings such as love, care, and affection are also possible motives for actions. These have not been taken into account by ethical egoism. Thus, it is my personal belief that ethical egoism is not the correct moral theory. Reference: Arthur, John. 2005. â€Å"Morality, Religion, and Conscience. † In Ar thur, J. (Ed. ) Morality and Moral Controversies: Readings in Moral, Social, and Political Philosophy. Upper Saddle River, N. J. : Pearson Prentice Hall.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Assingment Essays

Assingment Essays Assingment Essay Assingment Essay A haiku can have more beauty and thought in three short lines than any full Ii night poem has in twenty. To have something so short and so complex, only to be matched d by an even more complex pace is truly inspiring. The haiku presents intense emotion and a vivid images of nature (THAT are designed to lead) to a spiritual awakening. At first it may seem that having such a short amount written might not give someone much to interpret, but in fact it makes the imagination run wild. In Mattson Bassos under Cherry Trees he paints a beautiful picture of nature, and being among it. Bash spent many years traveling through Japan, this haiku could h eve been torn straight out of his journal, just a moment when he stopped to eat a meal, sit Eng under a cherry tree watching the petals fall, letting himself be one with his surroundings. Wit h humble simplicity, Bash didnt need a page to describe an event, his mastery of haiku allowed him to bring his readers into that moment, and reminded us to perceive what was be fore us, and not to over analyze. Looking at Carolyn Seizers After Bash , she shows the depth of haiku with the use of metaphors. Kaiser describes the moon taking its evening position in the sky, p allied, scared, not as notable as the sun that came before, but still well known. In this clever meta horn she describes how a person working in the (shadows) of Mattson Bash might feel knowing t hey (would/will) be compared to the best. Finally, Sonic Sanchez Cmon man hold me , is the most complex of the three haiku (and) its magnificence lies in its complexity. This haiku has no punctuation, its Ritter how someone would speak casually, and the possibilities of its meaning our endue as. One could interpret this haiku as depicting the fleeting nature of time and the last mom .NET we share with someone before we are nothing more than a memory. Haiku is the most important and beautiful form of poetry due to its complexity y and depth. Haiku poetry brings about spiritual insight of the world and of life.

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

University of Texas at San Antonio UTSA Admissions Data

University of Texas at San Antonio UTSA Admissions Data Are you interested in attending the University of Texas at San Antonio? They accept more than three-quarters of all applicants. See more about their admissions requirements. About UTSA The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), is a large public university whose main campus occupies 725 acres on the northern edge of San Antonio, Texas. Undergraduates can choose from 63 bachelors degree programs. Popular majors span a wide range of fields in the sciences, social sciences, humanities, and profession areas. The university has a diverse student population, and the school wins high marks for the number of degrees it awards to Hispanic students. Established in 1969, UTSA has grown significantly in its short history and the campus has undergone extensive construction, renovation, and expansion in recent years. On the athletic front, the UTSA Roadrunners compete in the NCAA Division I Conference USA. The school fields 17 Division I teams. Will you get in if you apply? Calculate your chances of getting in with this free tool from Cappex. Admissions Data (2016) UTSA Acceptance Rate: 76Â  percentTest Scores: 25th / 75th PercentileSAT Critical Reading: 450 / 560SAT Math: 470 / 570SAT Writing: - / -What these SAT numbers meanACT Composite: 20 / 25ACT English: 18 / 24ACT Math: 19 / 25ACT Writing: - / -What these ACT numbers mean Enrollment (2016) Total Enrollment: 28,959Â  (24,724 undergraduates)Gender Breakdown: 50Â  percent male / 50 percent female82Â  percent Full-time Costs (2016-17) Tuition and Fees: $7,700 (in-state); $18,297 (out-of-state)Books: $1,000 (why so much?)Room and Board: $11,090Other Expenses: $2,582Total Cost: $22,372 (in-state); $32,969 (out-of-state) University of Texas at San Antonio Financial Aid (2015-16) Percentage of New Students Receiving Aid: 84Â  percentPercentage of New Students Receiving Types of AidGrants: 67Â  percentLoans: 52 percentAverage Amount of AidGrants: $7,358Loans: $6,044 Academic Programs Most Popular Majors: Architecture, Biology, Accounting, Business Administration, Communication, Criminal Justice, English, Finance, Health, History, Interdisciplinary Studies, Marketing, Political Science, PsychologyWhat major is right for you? Sign up to take the free My Careers and Majors Quiz at Cappex. Transfer, Graduation and Retention Rates First Year Student Retention (full-time students): 71Â  percentTransfer Out Rate: 33 percent4-Year Graduation Rate: 13Â  percent6-Year Graduation Rate: 35Â  percent Intercollegiate Athletic Programs Mens Sports: Football, Track and Field, Baseball, Tennis, Golf, BasketballWomens Sports: Soccer, Softball, Tennis, Volleyball, Golf, Basketball, Track and Field If You Like the University of Texas - San Antonio, You May Also Like These Schools Texas State University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphUniversity of Houston: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphBaylor University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphSt Marys University: ProfileUniversity of North Texas: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphUniversity of Texas - Dallas: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphTexas Christian University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphAngelo State University: ProfileUniversity of Texas - El Paso: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT GraphSam Houston State University: ProfileTexas Tech University: Profile | GPA-SAT-ACT Graph University of Texas at San Antonio Mission Statement mission statement from The University of Texas at San Antonio is dedicated to the advancement of knowledge through research and discovery, teaching and learning, community engagement and public service. As an institution of access and excellence, UTSA embraces multicultural traditions and serves as a center for intellectual and creative resources as well as a catalyst for socioeconomic development–for Texas, the nation and the world. Data Source: National Center for Educational Statistics

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Historical Literature Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Historical Literature - Essay Example Malamund’s story tells only one of the many struggles between heritage and what is accepted by society. Over the course of history many people have been persecuted and forced into submission by a bigger more socially accepted culture. Jewish religion has always met with persecution throughout history, but unfortunately while the Jewish are the most well known, they are not the only ones who have had to endure the life ruining affects of an invading people and culture bigger than their own. History is riddled with stories of people who were seen as inferior by conquering cultures. The Jew Bird details the destruction of a culture overwhelmed by a larger population’s expectations and ideas as to the way a person is supposed to live their life. Malamund uses Cohen as an example of what every Jewish American realizes and fears will become of their culture and their way of living. Cohen has forgotten the ways that he used to live. His way of living has been so completely altered that he does not even recognize a true Jew when he sees one, and when questioned about Jewbird he says,† Poor bird, my ass. He is a foxy bastard. He thinks he is a Jew† (Malamund 738). Cohen has become bitter and weary of life and takes little joy in anything. For example, when Jewbird comes to his door asking for food, instead of graciously inviting him into his home and offering him food and comfort as Jewish culture previously condoned, he harshly tries to turn him away by saying, "This aint a restaurant" (Malamund 738). He does not want to help out or give anyone charity because no one did that for him while his people were being persecuted by the Nazis and being killed by the thousands. The presence of Jewbird in the story gives the reader a stinging reminder of how wonderful the Jewish culture once was and how horribly destroyed it became. The contrast between Jewbird and Cohen is so strong. While Cohen wont go out of his way for anyone, Jewbird "Spends most

Friday, November 1, 2019

Strategic business analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5000 words

Strategic business analysis - Essay Example Moreover, the improvements in infrastructures and technology contributed to the development of several motorcycles producing firms. In India, Hero-Honda is a household name when it comes to motorcycles. Obviously, the name suggests that the company was once composed of two independent motorcycle manufacturers. Gradually, the economic situation and several aspects paved for the merger. At present, the company occupies the top spot in terms of market share. Although it appears that the decision to merge was strategic in nature, some observers consider other reasons for the decisions. The complexities of strategic cooperation and collaboration make the situation an interesting point of analysis. The discussion will concentrate on the nature of the Hero-Honda partnership and its perceived benefits and drawbacks. This is determined through the comparison with Hero-Honda and among its competitors. The financial position of the company will serve as evidence of the success that has become the prime motivation of Hero-Honda to pursue higher goals. Honda traces its roots from Japan, which houses the likes of Kawasaki, Suzuki, and Toyota. These companies are world-class automotive manufacturers and embraced by majority of the automotive consumers. Honda is recognised as one of the leaders in the motorcycle industry. Its operations expand worldwide and have 437 subsidiaries scattered across the globe. The branch located in India is one of the largest. From its humble beginnings, Honda quickly made a huge impact with its cutting edge technological advancements and top notch motorcycles. Also, Honda's concern to the environment and the society where it operates is being admired. The product line of Honda ranges from small scoters to massive vehicles. For years, the development strength of Honda has made the company upbeat with the changes in the industry. Surprisingly, its unconventional approach in dealing with its clients has provided the company with increased benefits. The goal of Honda is to produce with unparalleled quality and to continue its improvement in the future. Honda aims to thrive in a society where the customers demand its existence. Honda revolves around the notion of respect to individuals and the promotion of three joys: buying, selling, and creating. The management principle seeks to maintain global viewpoint and the assurance that only the best products will be provided to customers. More important, the prices of Honda merchandises are lower than the competition and provide the highest level of customer satisfaction. 1.2. Hero Cycles Hero is centred in the philosophy of commitment, teamwork, and foresight. Even before India's independence of United Kingdom, Hero was already starting to make a name. The initial step was to sell bicycle parts and the plan expanded after a few years of operations. Unfortunately economic stagnation paralysed the progress of the company. Since the plan was to expand, Hero started moving in different areas and began the process of manufacturing bicycle parts. Then, Hero proceeded with the production of bicycles. The Guinness Book of Records certified Hero Cycles as the largest producer of bicycle in the world. The company controlled 48% of the market in India and Hero continued to hold the lead in the industry. The managers of Hero are known for their meticulous planning. The strategy of Hero was to focus on the strength and prevent the weaknesses from making strong impacts. The simple

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Compare and contrast Pascal, Voltaire, Hume, Kierkegaard and Nietzsche Essay

Compare and contrast Pascal, Voltaire, Hume, Kierkegaard and Nietzsche - Essay Example He stipulated in his popular ‘Pascal’s Wager. He said the people would lose very little for believing that God exists regardless of whether he exists or not. On the other hand, he stipulated that people would gain a lot for believing that God exists. In this case, he concluded that it is appropriate for people to believe that God exists and behave in an appropriate manner. Pascal said that he would rather be frightened of being mistaken about the existence of God. Therefore, Pascal’s Wager is regarded as a rationality of belief in God. His views are directed to those people who waver as opposed to those people who do not believe in the existence of God (Asiado). Voltaire’s life is described as a paradox. In this case, he despised humanity yet he was fond of men. Moreover, he did not believe in God but in real sense he dedicated his life to find him. He stipulated that no religious text or revelation is needed to allow people to believe in God. He believed in the universal laws which are focused in the moral world which are observed in all religious systems. In this case, people are required to have respect for nature and the contemporary world. Voltaire believed that there exists a supreme, eternal and intelligent being. He believed in reason and not faith (Graves). Hume is regarded as an empiricist. He believes that belief would be regarded as rational if there is sufficient evidence to support it. In this case, he questions whether there is enough evidence in the world which would convince people to believe in the wise, powerful, good and a wise God. For example, Hume was very critical of the Catholic Church. He described its activities as ones that are guided by idolatry and superstition. He also stipulated that they practiced uncivilized beliefs. Moreover, he regarded Protestants as corruptors of belief (Quinton, p, 3). Therefore, in this perspective, it is true that Hume was skeptical about religion. Kierkegaard was a religious poet. In this

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Crystalline Concrete for Sub Structure Waterproofing

Crystalline Concrete for Sub Structure Waterproofing Crystalline Concrete for Sub Structure Waterproofing: A Literature Review Abstract In recent years, numerous urban areas have suffered flooding. The flood in urban area comes with even more disastrous effects such as health catastrophise in addition to damage to the properties and financial loss. The urban flood leaves behind the flooded basement of houses and other public infrastructures which needs professional attention to solve the problem. Number of techniques are available in the market for the post construction water proofing solutions. However, this review article is focused on current method of integral concrete water proofing method using crystalline waterproofing materials and preventing the sub structure flooding. This article reviews various causes of basement flooding and gives an overview of proprietary characteristics of crystalline materials such as doping quantity, influence on concrete and mortar compressive strength, degree of water tightness/impermeability, reformation of inner structural matrix etc. The benefits of using crystalline materials are illustrated followed by a case study. This literature review article revealed more favourable features of crystalline waterproofing which cannot be ignored. Crystalline waterproofing was came out as the most cost efficient and easy to operate with solution. It does not impart any significant change on the structural properties of the concrete and can be used with varied types of concrete and mortar at different locations. The crystalline concrete is meant to be the future of water proof construction industry and is currently used at many large-scale construction hydro projects to the multi-level basements of high rise structures. Introduction Various metropolitans and small urban areas across the world has suffered from flooding in recent years due to global warming effect. Cities across Canada are no exceptions from such disasters. Metros such as Winnipeg, Toronto, Montreal, Calgary are the victims of severe urban flood disasters. Floods causes millions of dollars damage to the country and leaves financial and health catastrophes behind. In recent years, Canada has suffered most expensive floods in the history in the City of Calgary in Alberta and Greater Toronto Area in Southern Ontario. Flood in the city of Calgary costed almost 5-Billion-dollar loss to the government with 1.7-billion-dollar loss of insured properties [1]. Numerous homes were flooded in Greater Toronto Area in July 2013 and damaged properties worth 940$ million. In 2012, Insurance bureau of Canada revealed very astonishing fact that, almost 51% claims paid to the property owners due to flooded houses were related to the basement flooding. In addition t o financial catastrophes, Severity of flooded basements to the human health cannot be ignored. Damp walls and floors pooled with sewer waters are the best breeding places for various pathogens and hazardous bacteria which can lend damage to respiratory and immunity system. There are several reasons for flooding of basements such as ground water ingress due to water table rise, infiltration of water during heavy rains, sewer back up, drainage failure, etc. which leads to deterioration of basement structure. Soil aggression due to presence of chemicals are added source of active degradation of concrete constituents [2] [3].ÂÂ   Such added risk of structural degradation of basement structure should be overcome by implying various changes into construction methods and post construction rehabilitation measures. By maintaining the sound structural condition of basement walls and ceiling/floor slabs, risk of basement flooding due to ground water ingress (Pluvial flooding) can be minimized. Chew and De Silva [2] carried out 61 face to face interviews and survey of 987 cases with basement flooding sue to water seepage. The severity of the problem was categorized on Likert scale on 1 to 5 scale where 1 represented very mild, 3 moderate and 5 very severe con dition. Poor joint detailing, cracks and porosity was identified as the main cause of water seepage during construction and after construction stage. I. H. Wong [3] studied the wetness of basement walls due to water seepage in various building of Singapore. it was found that in case of multi-level basement, the bottom most basement was significantly affected by moisture penetration. Numerous techniques have been developed through years for waterproofing of sub surface walls. During construction stage, Chemicals are sprayed on structural components for damp proofing and various membrane sheets are applied on the surface post construction. All of these methods requires extensive supervision, expertise and care during the installation and there are extensive chances of system failure during the installation and due to higher hydrostatic pressure. Post construction waterproofing techniques are more complex as they are employed on late detection and hence requires excavation, temporary retention or even possibly underpinning of adjacent structures and thus such measures cannot be employed while flowing waters [4]. Most dwelling are constructed with sub surface drainages directed towards sum pits where pumps are installed to draw out percolated water to exterior sewer or storm water channels. In case of failure of pump or overflow of exterior system, drainages help wa ter to seep through the walls. Mechanics of Moisture Migration Same as in the case of concrete slab, water/moisture penetrates through the walls due to hydrostatic pressure or capillary action [5]. Hydrostatic water pressure is build up due to presence of high ground water table on the backfill side of the wall. Capillary pores are developed in the soil or the wall itself. Capillary pores help water to elevate from lower to higher heights which is known as the capillary action. Concrete and especially mortar is more vulnerable to capillary action due to presence of already available micro cracks. Third but an uncommon way of the moisture migration is due to water vapour. Water in depth of soil or concrete turns into vapour due to subsequent change in the temperature. This helps vapour to travel through the sub structure walls once enough difference in the vapour pressure is established on both sides. For the prevention of moisture migration, integral crystalline waterproofing can be used with the use of chemical in the concrete mix. Crystalline Concrete Many researchers are working for the complete solution for a water proof concrete which can be applied during the construction process such as an additive mixture in concrete batching plant or can be used as a surface treatment method like a membrane but easy to install. However, the quest of finding an all in one solution is partially over with the development of crystalline concrete which is an integral concrete waterproofing method. The crystalline concrete waterproofing was developed in early 40s and was designed for repairing of concrete. However, the extensive research and product development has made integral crystalline waterproofing as the future of waterproof construction industry. This tested technology of crystalline admixture contains organic and cementitious compounds which gets activated when comes in contact with the water and reacts with unhydrated cement [4]. This reaction develops a needle like structures (As shown in Figure 1) filling the concrete pores or voids otherwise may have acted as capillary pores for the water ingress. In case if the concrete goes further cracking or crack is opened due to movement, the activated material forms crystals to fill these voids and again seals the pores. This hydrophilic admixture also helps unhydrated cement particles to stabilize through the course of time and prevents future existence of capillary pores. Figure 1 Crystalline concrete needle like structures (Courtesy: The National Academic Press) Properties and Characteristics The crystalline admixture is composed of Portland cement, specially treated quartz and active chemicals. The composition of active chemical is kept secret by the manufacturers. However, the waterproofing effect of crystalline material is confirmed in laboratory by using various chemical mixtures. Zhang Yong et al. [6] carried out experimental study to determine the quantity of the doping chemical agent to be used in concrete for crystalline waterproofing effect. Various chemical agents such as complexing agent (denoted as B), Calcium aluminium composite salt (denoted as C), Calcium hydroxide (denoted as D) and Calcium aluminium composite salt 2 (denoted as E) were used throughout the experiment. To determine the water resistivity, two seepage tests were conducted at 14 day and 28 day of casting specimen. Specimen with doping agent denoted as D and B performed the best at 14 and 28 days respectively. These two specimens were further investigated for optimization of doping quantity. Fo llowing Figure 2 shows optimization tests results for doping agents D and B. Zhang Yong et al. [6] also carried out experiments to determine the compressive strength, breaking strength and bonding strength of coating paste and observed increase of compressive and breaking strength with increase in sand-cement ratio however bonding strength decreases with increase in sand-cement ratio (See Figure 3-5). Figure 2 Optimization test results [6] Figure 3 Compressive strength [6] Figure 4 Breaking strength [6] Figure 5 Bond strength [6] The influence of crystalline concrete admixture on the compressive strength of concrete was also studied by Pazderka[7]. The experiments were divided in to two phases, one for concrete and one for mortar. The compression resistance of concrete and mortar has been the topic of discussion since long as the elements in the substructures are designed for load bearing. The investigation of concrete compression test subjected to crystalline admixture added by 2% of cement weight showed no change in the compressive strength result of concrete cubes however, slight deceleration in the hardening process of concrete was observed. In the case of cement mortar, an increase of 25% in compressive strength was observed on 41st day of casting. Figure 6 shows the trend of growth in compressive strength of cement mortar subjected to same weight of crystalline admixture. Figure 6 Growth trend of compressive strength of cement mortar [7] The speed of waterproofing by crystalline admixture is also a subject of claims by various manufacturers as there are no credible research has been carried out to measure the waterproofing speed of crystalline admixtures. Pazderka and Hajkova [8] studied the speed of waterproofing while using the crystalline admixtures. The experiment involved carrying out water pressure tests at different time intervals during the early hydration stage of cement. Xypex Admix C-1000 NF was used as crystalline admixture as it is widely available in the market. Cube specimen casted were subjected to 0.5MPa water pressure for 72 hours and cubes were broken to determine seepage afterwards. The test result data showed that, complete water proofing is achieved on 12th day of curing and seepage boundary was measured at 15 mm from the surface. The concrete was declared ready to carry the water load. Following Figure 7 shows seepage boundaries at various day of intervals. Figure 7 Seepage shapes at various days of intervals [8] W. Keliang et al. [9] studied the impermeability of permeated crystalline concrete by performing impermeability tests. The results showed that use of permeated crystalline material decreases fine cracks in in the mortar matrix and reduces the distribution of pores with diameters larger than 200nm and reduced the distribution of smaller pores having diameter 20nm-100nm. This in turn reduces the most probable diameter of pores available in matrix without permeated crystalline material and hence improves water tightness. Following Figure 8 shows the distribution curve for pores with differential diameter subjected to different dosage of permeated crystalline material. Figure 8 distribution curve for pores with differential diameter subjected to different dosage of permeated crystalline material [9] Reiterman and Baumelt [10] investigated the long-term sorption properties of concrete with crystalline admixture. It was observed that, in the initial stage of curing (7 days), the dosage of crystalline material in concrete mix does not make any change in water tightness as it retards 50% water with 0.5% and 1.0% content of crystalline material. The research suggests matured effectivity of crystalline material on 90 days and suggests past data with more than 50% and 80% reduction in capillary water transportation with same 0.5% and 1.0% content. Crystalline mixtures can also be used as a surface treatment tool as a post construction water proofing measure. In case, the optimum thickness or depth of the crystalline cover is necessary to protect the element from further degradation. Reiterman and Pazderka [11] studied the influence of crystalline coating depth on water transport in concrete structure by electrical resistivity method, water absorption and reliability affected due to construction joints and. The researchers observed significant change in the inner formation of the concrete matrix and confirmed water tightness of the crystalline material particularly in construction joint areas. Benefits There are several benefits of using crystalline concrete waterproofing can be drawn from studying the literature. It can be used during construction and after construction measure. Crystalline material easily penetrates in to the concrete pores and becomes an inherent part of the concrete which cannot be detached like membrane sheets. Being a hydrophilic material, it gets activated when come to contact with water or moisture. Crystalline materials are readily available from different manufacturers and are easy to store and install. Crystalline materials can be applied on different types of concrete and mortars from outside or inside. Crystalline waterproofing is a cost effective long term solution for the substructure water proofing and hence being a successful and sustainable solution, it is increasingly used in large hydro projects around the world. Case study: AIG headquarters London The American International Group Inc. (AIG) is located on Fenchurch Street London. The building consists of 14 storey structure with two levels of basements. The first level was meant to host mechanical and electrical facilities and second level was supposed to be used for car parking and document storage [12]. The construction of the building was followed by a very tight time schedule and hence, the sub-contractor Duffy construction Ltd. used the integral concrete waterproofing technique and saved a moth. Pudlo concentrated integral concrete waterproofing powder was used with C40 grade of concrete, cement content of 350 Kg/m3, water/cement ratio of 0.4 and slump height was 100mm. The concrete was supplied by London Concrete. Water proofing agent with concentration of 8 Kg/m3 was used and alkali content was kept below 2.45 Kg/m3 reducing the alkali silica reaction. The modified concrete was used to construct a 1.2m thick raft for basement and located 7m below ground supported on pile foundation. High density bentonite based sealer was used in joint as an added measure for water tightness. These modifications in concrete resulted into 90% reduction in water absorption and more than 50% reduction in water penetration under pressure while improving freeze-thaw, chloride and oxygen diffusion and sulphate resistance. Mixture also developed increased compressive and flexural strength with reduced shrinkage/wetting expansion, efflorescence, leaching and carbonation rate. Conclusion Flooded basements are the most common property claims filled by home owners and costs millions of dollars loss to the insurance industry and the economy of the country. there are various types of post construction techniques are available for water proofing such as membrane sheets or chemical sprays etc. out of which crystalline concrete water proofing method of integral water proofing was observed to serve best. Crystalline materials are available in various mixtures which can be used during construction as an additive to the mortar or concrete mix and it can also be used as chemical spray for post construction water proofing. It is observed that, crystalline concrete when comes in contact with water or moisture, it gets activated and forms needle like structure inside the structural matrix. These formation fills harmful pores of diameter larger than 200nm and increases the distribution of smaller diameter pores ranging from 20nm-100nm. The influence of crystalline material on compr essive strength of concrete is almost negligible. However, Compressive strength of mortar gets increased by 25 on 41st day of casting. The structural matrix achieves full water tightness on 7th day of casting and becomes ready to bear the water load. The long-term effects of crystalline waterproofing are observed more favourable than short term effect neglecting the misconception of increased dosage requirement. [1] D. Sandlink, Urban flooding and ground-related homes in canada: An overview, in Journal of flood risk management 6th international conference on flood management, Sao Paulo Brazil, 2016. [2] M. Chew and N. De Silva, Benchmarks to minimize water leakages in basements, Structural Survey, Vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 131-145, 2003. [3] I. Wong, Experience with waterproofness of basements constructed of concrete diaphragm wall in singapore, Tunneling and underground space technology, Vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 491-495, 1998. [4] C. Deckard, Rethinking waterproofing for subsurface structures, in Fifth Forensic Engineering Congress, Washington D.C., 2009. [5] R. W. Day, Moisture penetration of concrete floor slabs, basement walls and flat slab ceilings, Practice periodical on structural design and construction, Vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 104-107, November 1996. [6] Y. Zhang, X. Du, Y. Li, F. Yang and Z. Li, Research on cementitious capillary crystalline waterproofing coating for underground concrete works, Advanced Materials Research, Vols. 450-451, pp. 286-290, 2012. [7] J. Pazderka, The crystalline admixture effect on concrete and cement mortar compressive strength, Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 722, pp. 87-91, 2017. [8] J. Pazderka and E. Hajkova, The speed of the crystalline admixtures waterproofing, Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 722, pp. 108-112, 2016. [9] K. Wang, T. Hu and S. Xu, Influence of permeated crystalline waterproof materials on impermeability of concrete, Advanced Material Research, Vols. 446-449, pp. 954-960, 2012. [10] P. Reiterman and V. Baumelt, Long-term sorption properties of mortars modified by crystallizing, Advanced Material Research, Vol. 1054, pp. 71-74, 2014. [11] P. Reiterman and J. Pazderka, Crystalline coating and its influence on the water transportat in concrete, Advances in civil engineering, Vol. 2016, pp. 1-8, 2016. [12] M. Phenna, A waterproof basement for AIG headquarters London, London: Concrete Magazine, 2004.